10-07-2007, 02:33 PM #1
Do your health a favor... eat SeafoodNutritional Information
Nutritionists have known for years that seafood is a source of top-quality protein. Through the educational and promotional efforts of the seafood industry, government, and academe, the general public has a sharper sense of the importance of seafood in a healthy diet. Seafood can make a significant contribution to the nutrient needs of all consumers, especially growing children and the elderly.
Nutrition is the net effect of the process by which an organism ingests and uses foods for growth and maintenance of the body. Foods are composed of specific nutrients; protein, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals. These nutrients serve as the raw material and energy needed for the body to carry out all of its functions.
Proteins are large molecules composed primarily of amino acids. Our body's digestive enzymes break down the protein we consume to release amino acids which are in turn used to make new proteins the body uses for growth and maintenance. There are nine amino acids which the body cannot manufacture; we must get them from food. They are called essential amino acids. Seafood contains all nine essential amino acids; therefore, it is an excellent choice for meeting our daily protein needs. An added advantage of seafood is that its protein is highly digestible. The protein in seafood is more readily broken down and absorbed than the protein in red meats and poultry. This advantage makes seafood an excellent food choice for people of all ages. Fish contain 17 to 25% protein with an average content of 19 g/100 g.
Fat and Calories
What is a calorie? Many people count calories or "weight-watch," but do they really understand what they are counting? The food calorie or kilogram calorie is a measure of energy, defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram (approximately 2.2 pound) of water one degree Celsius. The calories in food supply the energy the body needs to carry out all its many functions. The nutrients in food that supply energy are fat (nine calories per gram) and carbohydrates and proteins (four calories per gram each). Most varieties of finfish and shellfish are low in fat, less than 5%, and, in many cases, less than 1% fat. Therefore, most varieties of seafood provide 100 to 200 calories per 3-1/2 ounces.
The Dietary Guidelines published by the USDA and the Department of Health and Human Services advise us to eat less total fat. More specifically, "Reduce overall fat consumption from approximately 40 to 30% of energy intake." This means that of all the calories we derive from the food we eat, only 30% of them should come from fat. The Dietary Guidelines go on to suggest the type of fat. "Reduce saturated fat consumption to account for about 10% of total energy intake, and balance that with polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats, which should account for about 10% of energy intake each."
Seafood goes a long way to helping consumers achieve these U.S. dietary goals. The total amount of fat in seafood is very low in most varieties and the fat is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. It is typically the way seafood is prepared that can add fat, such as sauces and deep-fat frying, not from the fish itself. Cooking techniques such as broiling, barbecuing, poaching, microwaving, or steaming on a rack will help reduce the amount of fat in the total fish recipe. On a unit calorie basis, seafood can provide a broad range of nutrients. Increasing the intake of fish is compatible with a reduction of calorie intake and saturated fatty acid intake.
Vitamins and Minerals
There are two types of vitamins, fat soluble (A, D, E, and K) and water soluble (C and the B complex). Vitamins A and D are found in fish liver oils and in small amounts in the fatty tissues of fish. Seafood is generally low in fat, and we usually don't consume fish liver oils; therefore, seafood is not considered a significant source of the fat-soluble vitamins. There is little Vitamin C found in seafood, but it is considered an excellent source of the B complex vitamins, particularly niacin, B12 and B6. Thiamine is also found in seafoods in fair amounts.
Seafood is an excellent source of minerals. Fish are one of the most important sources of calcium. The soft bones of small fish such as sardines and smelts and canned varieties such as salmon are
especially valuable sources of calcium. Other minerals in seafood include zinc (oysters and crustaceans), iron (oysters, bluefish, and shrimp), copper (oysters, crabs, and lobster), potassium (mussels, scallops, and clams), and iodine, phosphorus, and selenium (all seafood in general). Fresh seafood is low in sodium. For those who have to restrict the intake of sodium, fresh seafood is an excellent choice, although you should limit your intake of processed seafoods such as smoked, cured, and most canned seafoods. Salt is added in the processing of these seafood products as it is in imitation seafood products.
Cholesterol levels are not significant in most seafood products. Finfish are generally quite low in cholesterol, with shellfish having low to moderate amounts. In the past, shellfish have been excluded from low cholesterol diets because they were believed to be high in cholesterol. New sophisticated measuring techniques have indicated that cholesterol levels of many molluscan shellfish are much lower than was previously thought. In fact, molluscs, such as clams, oysters, scallops, and mussels were found to have a large percentage of noncholesterol sterols present that appear to have a positive effect. These sterols inhibit the absorption of cholesterol eaten at the same meal. Cholesterol levels in such crustaceans as crab and lobster are similar to that found in the dark meat of chicken.
While the cholesterol in shrimp varies considerably by specie, it generally is 1-1/2 to 2 times higher than in the dark meat of chicken, but far less than in eggs. Because shellfish contain very little saturated fat, they are no longer excluded from typical low cholesterol diets.
Again, seafood fits right in when trying to meet the U.S. dietary goal --reduce cholesterol consumption to about 300 mg a day. Fish averages about 50-90 mg cholesterol per 3-1/2 ounces. Shellfish tend to contain slightly higher amounts of cholesterol; thus crustaceans (crab, lobsters, shrimp) contains 60- 100 mg/3-1/2 ounces and mollusks (clams, oysters, scallops), 40-110 mg/3-1/2 ounces. Squid and octopus may contain relatively high levels, 250 and 122 mg/3-1/2 ounces, respectively.
The above indicates that seafood consumption is a good idea that is compatible with optimum dietary practices/ recommendations and that substitutions of fish for other foods can help maintain a balanced nutrient intake compatible with a low-fat diet. The consumption of fish oils may provide added significant health benefits. Fish oils may provide a protective effect in minimizing the development of several chronic degenerative diseases and may have a therapeutic effect in certain cases, for example, arthritis, atherosclerosis, and vasospasm.
Fish oils are composed of fatty acids which consist of a chain of carbon atoms with a carboxyl group at one end and a methyl group (CH3) at the other. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) contain several double bonds between carbon atoms in the chain; the more double bonds, the higher the degree of unsaturation. Fish oils are unique in that they contains a large portion of highly unsaturated fatty acids and some fatty acids with an odd number of carbons in the chain.
Many fish oils are composed primarily of the omega-3 fatty acids. They differ from most plant oils which contains mainly the omega-6 fatty acids. The most important omega-3 fatty acids found in seafood are eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Fish and shellfish ingest and accumulate omega-3 fattyacids through the food chain from algae and phytoplankton, the primary producers of omega-3 fatty acids. Man can only produce saturated and omega-9 fatty acids, which means we have to get the omega-3 fatty acids we need through our daily foods.
How do omega-3 fatty acids prevent or improve human diseases? After several medical studies, it now appears that the omega-3 fatty acids help keep our bodies from over-producing eicosanoids, a group of hormone-like substances that can, in large amounts, contribute to arthritis, asthma, heart disease, stroke, and related disorders. The eicosanoids are normally derived from the omega-6 PUFA arachidonate, found predominantly in plant oil. Omega-3 fatty acids act as an antagonist to eicosanoid synthesis, thereby lowering their production. It also forms modified eicosanoids less active than the normal compounds. A diet that balances plant foods with fish foods and their omega-3 fatty acids, remains an effective and enjoyable way to combat health problems.
Most nutrition researchers now say that eating seafood once or twice a week may be beneficial in preventing coronary heart disease. The high content of PUFA in seafood lowers serum cholesterol levels. Omega-3 fatty acids change the critical balance of certain blood components called lipoproteins, thus reducing the low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) that deposit cholesterol along the artery walls. The omega-3 fatty acids also lower the levels of triglycerides, another type of fat involved in heart disease. Also, the omega-3 fatty acids form a different pattern of prostaglandin, diminishing the clotting of blood cells, reducing the number and stickiness of blood platelets, and making red blood cells more flexible so that they flow more smoothly.
Other health problems that may be controlled or alleviated by the consumption of omega-3 fatty acids from fish are asthma, arthritis, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, hypertension, migraine headaches, cancer, and some kidney diseases.
How much seafood should we eat? A Dutch study published in May 1985 in The New England Journal of Medicine concluded that "the consumption of as little as one or two fish dishes a week may be of preventive value in relation to coronary heart disease." These findings were echoed by scientists who gathered at a two-day conference on seafood and health in November 1985. They agreed that eating several seafood meals a week is a good way to cut your risk of heart disease. "I have no qualms about the American public eating three or even four meals of fish a week," said Dr. WilliamCastelli, director of the Framingham Heart Study.
"Do your health a favor... eat Seafood"
Fresh seafood is an excellent source of proteins, a good source of minerals, and some vitamins, and its is low in fats, cholesterol, and sodium. In general, seafood is one of the most nutritionally balanced foods. A seafood diet helps control weight and goes a long way toward preventing heart disease. Besides, a seafood diet is a delicious way to accomplish heart-healthy eating habits.
10-07-2007, 02:38 PM #2
10-07-2007, 03:18 PM #3
Beaver is one of my favorites Does water fowl count?
10-07-2007, 06:00 PM #4
Fresh seafood is also an excellent source of P.C.B.s, mercury, and other poisons that will accumulate in your system and kill you.
10-08-2007, 08:34 AM #5
- Join Date
- Sep 2006
ya there aint no stinking ocean around here so i stick to my farm raised cat fish !!! i look at every body crazy that gets crab and shrimp at the buffet , its just a ticking time bomb for food
10-08-2007, 01:23 PM #6
Fresh seafood is also an excellent source of P.C.B.s, mercury, and other poisons that will accumulate in your system and kill you[/quote][/quote]
Agreed. But all depends where you get the seafood from, how was handled and for how long your body has been exposed to these toxins eating contaminated seafood. Usually, if you get poison eating seafood, you'll know right away. It happens to me eating oysters in a party where I was the only one who got poison after mixing raw oysters with Scotch.
Actually, you can get poisoned from any food.
Synonyms and related keywords: food poisoning, food-borne disease, FBD, food-borne infection, food-borne illness, botulism, gastroenteritis, Staphylococcus aureus toxin, food-borne bacterial infection, food-borne parasitic infection, food-borne viral infection, zoonosis, gastrointestinal disease, GI disease, seafood poisoning, plant poisoning, chemical poisoning, staphylococcal-toxin gastroenteritis, hepatitis A, trichinosis, toxoplasmosis, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, HUS, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli-induced diarrhea, cholera, toxin-mediated food poisoning
Background: Food-borne illnesses are diverse in etiology, and they can follow ingestion of infectious organisms or noninfectious substances. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) emphasized that food-borne diseases (FBDs) constitute a serious public health problem in the United States. FBDs encompass classic toxin-mediated food poisoning, such as botulism, gastroenteritis that follows ingestion of preformed Staphylococcus aureus toxin, ingestion of chemicals in foods, and bacterial, parasitic, and viral infections. Many FBDs are zoonoses, which implies that the infectious agent has a primary animal reservoir and humans are affected incidentally. This chapter discusses FBDs in a broad sense, in that it includes discussion of water and fomite-borne pathogens.
Pathophysiology: Although the gastrointestinal tract is the primary target, autonomic nervous system disturbances and CNS impairment are prominent manifestations in chemical-, plant-, and seafood-related poisonings and in botulism. The severity of dehydration can vary depending on the pathogen. Typically, FBDs in which severe vomiting (eg, staphylococcal-toxin gastroenteritis) and small bowel diarrhea occur, typified by Vibrio cholerae infection, can cause life-threatening dehydration. Other organs involved include the liver in hepatitis A, muscles in trichinosis, lymph nodes in toxoplasmosis, and, importantly, the kidneys in hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), which follows enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli-induced diarrhea.
- In the US: Current US Public Health Service estimates are that 76 million people acquire FBDs annually, with 325,000 hospitalizations and 5,200 deaths. Most deaths occur in elderly persons or individuals who are immunocompromised or pregnant.
- Internationally: International statistics are probably impossible to compute, but the obvious relevance of worldwide FBDs is the risk to travelers in the very mobile American and world population and the estimated 2 million deaths in children alone.
Race: No specific racial predilection exists, except that invasive Salmonella infections are more prevalent in individuals with hemoglobinopathies, which in turn are more common among people of African and Mediterranean descent.
Sex: No sex predilection is known for any food-borne illness; however, Listeria infection often is severe and life threatening in pregnant women.
Age: No age predilection is known for the acquisition of food-borne illnesses, but patients at the extremes of ages experience higher morbidity and mortality.
History: Because few food-borne illnesses present with their own pathognomonic clinical picture, and because laboratory tests are of limited value in acute situations, a systematic interrogation of patients and their families is the best way to deduce the etiology. Immediately following initiation of supportive treatment, the practitioner should obtain a history in the areas described below. This allows the list of possible agents to be narrowed, which helps dictate treatment and laboratory investigation.
A statement of the etiology and a brief description of the illness are included with each of the 4 incubation periods (ie, intervals between suspected food and onset of illness) to help relate this important historical clue to the specific infective agent.
- Short incubation (ie, within 1 d, usually <16 h)
- Chemical causes (ultrashort incubation): The onset of nausea, vomiting, and cramps within 1-2 hours is observed in poisonings involving metal, fish-associated toxins (eg, scombroid, ciguatera), shellfish-associated toxins, monosodium glutamate, or mushrooms. The toxic agent in shellfish- and ciguatera-related disease is derived from dinoflagellate organisms present in the fish or shellfish. Note that neurologic symptoms can present weeks later. Amanita mushrooms can lead to hepatorenal failure.
- Bacterial causes - Emetic syndrome (1-6 h)
- S aureus: Nausea and vomiting are caused by the action of preformed enterotoxins A-E.
- Bacillus cereus (emetic syndrome, indistinguishable from staphylococcal food poisoning): This spore-forming rod is present in raw rice grains. The emetic toxin is a preformed heat-stable toxin produced upon germination of the spores.
- Bacterial causes - Diarrheal syndrome (8-16 h)
- B cereus (diarrheal syndrome): The diarrheal toxin is a heat-labile toxin formed after sporulation.
- Clostridium perfringens type A: Diarrhea and abdominal cramps occur within 1 day of ingestion of cooked meat stored at 15-60įC. Slow cooling allows heat-activated spores to germinate and to elaborate the enterotoxin.
- Intermediate incubation (1-3 d)
- Diarrheal disease: This category comprises bacterial and viral infectious pathogens. The clinical presentation depends upon the target organ (ie, small bowel or large bowel), which varies depending on the pathogen.
- Diarrheal disease, large bowel enteritis: Fever and constitutional symptoms usually accompany the diarrhea caused by invasive pathogens in the large bowel. Dysentery, bloody stools with mucous, and cramps or tenesmus are typical.
- Campylobacter jejuni: This is a leading cause of bacterial food-borne illness in the United States. Vomiting is uncommon, and the illness is short and self-limiting.
- Shigella species: Shigellae cause the prototypical diarrheal syndrome with blood, mucous, and pain that is termed bacillary dysentery. Tenesmus and small-volume stools are typical. Toxemia may be severe, occasionally causing seizures in children.
- Enteroinvasive E coli (EIEC): Several serotypes of diarrheagenic E coli possess Shigella-like invasiveness factors that allow mucosal invasion. The disease is a febrile dysentery that mimics shigellosis.
- Salmonella species, nontyphoidal salmonellosis: This is a zoonotic infection acquired from bovine or poultry reservoirs and is very common in the United States. The illness can range from mild nonbloody diarrhea to a severe dysenteric illness.
- Salmonella species, enteric (typhoid) fever: In the United States, enteric fever occurs in travelers or recent immigrants and is a systemic toxic illness. Salmonella typhi has an exclusively human reservoir and is acquired either via ingestion of a large inoculum in food or contaminated water or from personal contact with a carrier.
- Vibrio parahaemolyticus: Although it is a common worldwide pathogen, in the United States, V parahaemolyticus infection is restricted geographically to the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. The diarrhea is profuse and watery, and blood is not commonly present in the stool.
- Diarrheal disease, small bowel enteritis
- Enterotoxigenic E coli (ETEC): Enterotoxin-producing strains of E coli are the most common cause of traveler's diarrhea. The diagnosis is clinical; fever and bloody stools typically are absent.
- Vibrio cholerae (01 and non-01 strains): Cholera is likely only in endemic areas and during epidemics. The profuse diarrhea and vomiting can lead to dehydration and prostration.
- Viral agents (Norwalklike viruses, rotavirus, adenoviruses, astroviruses, caliciviruses): Vomiting and headache accompany the diarrhea and fever more commonly with viral than with bacterial infections.
- All the large bowel pathogens also secrete enterotoxins that induce profuse watery small bowel diarrhea in some patients.
- Diarrheal disease, small bowel enteritis
- Botulism: Nausea, vomiting, skeletal muscle paralysis, and autonomic symptoms occur within 18-36 hours of ingestion of food containing Clostridium botulinum. The disease is mediated by preformed toxin in older children and adults, but it may follow ingestion of spores in infants. Diarrhea occurs only in approximately 5% of patients; instead, constipation may be noted. Infants with botulism present with muscular weakness that manifests as weak cry, difficulty sucking and swallowing, or respiratory failure. Upon examination, the baby has profound hypotonia but may be alert.
- Long incubation (3-5 d)
- Enterohemorrhagic E coli (EHEC): These strains of E coli cause hemorrhagic colitis with a 15% risk of progression to HUS in children, which is the result of cytotoxins termed verotoxins or Shigalike toxins. E coli O157:H7 is one of many such cytotoxin-producing E coli strains that reside in the gut of cattle. Although these organisms can cause mild nonbloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis is the usual symptom. Mild abdominal pain, malaise, and transient fever are followed by watery diarrhea. Bloody stools and more severe abdominal pain ensue several days later. Paucity of fever is a diagnostic clue. When HUS occurs, its onset is 5-13 days after the onset of diarrhea.
- Yersinia species
- Yersinia enterocolitica most often causes a febrile illness with abdominal pain due to mesenteric lymphadenitis in which diarrhea is not prominent. The illness can mimic appendicitis. The illness may be prolonged, lasting 2-3 weeks. In infants, a diarrheal illness is common, with occasional septicemia. The diagnosis is made with blood and stool cultures. Treatment is indicated only for infants with septicemia.
- Yersinia pseudotuberculosis: The symptom complex for this uncommon infection includes fever, rash (scarlatiniform or erythema nodosum), and abdominal pain.
- Very long incubation (1-4 wk)
- This category comprises parasitic FBDs, but shorter incubation periods can occur, especially in Entamoeba histolytica infection.
- Giardiasis: The spectrum of illness ranges from asymptomatic carriage to acute watery diarrhea, but a subacute intermittent diarrheal illness also is common.
- Amebiasis: E histolytica is a protozoan that causes dysentery and extraintestinal, most commonly hepatic, abscesses.
- Cryptosporidiosis: The organism Cryptosporidium parvum causes a diarrheal illness with fever and abdominal pain.
- Cyclosporiasis: Frequent watery stools, which can be accompanied by fever and a relapsing course, characterize this FBD caused by Cyclospora cayetanensis.
- Trichinosis is a rare illness, caused by Trichinella spiralis, that is acquired by ingestion of contaminated or raw pork, bear, or moose meat. Gastrointestinal tract symptoms are followed by muscle inflammation and periorbital edema.
- Cysticercosis: This infection is caused by the larval stage of pork tapeworm and most often is acquired by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the ova of the tapeworm rather than from eating raw pork.
- Anisakiasis, fish tapeworm, and flatworm infections: These uncommon worm infestations occur after consumption of certain types of raw fish (see Type of food consumed).
- Listeriosis: Diarrhea in Listeria monocytogenes infection may be mild, but systemic symptoms are prominent. The diarrhea has a short incubation period (<48 h), but symptoms of systemic spread could appear weeks later. The major risk is that of maternal infection during pregnancy. Neonatal sepsis and meningitis follow amniotic fluid infection. Older children and adults can develop meningitis. The infection is a particular hazard to individuals who are immunocompromised.
- Brucellosis: This is a febrile illness now only rarely acquired in the United States. The food source is raw or unpasteurized milk or cheese, most commonly from goats (Brucella melitensis).
- Viral: The incubation period of hepatitis A is 15-50 days for this viral hepatitis transmitted via the fecal-oral route.
- Protozoal, toxoplasmosis: A febrile and subacute lymphadenitis results from ingestion of undercooked meat. A nonspecific illness with systemic symptoms and generalized lymphadenopathy can occur in healthy individuals, or an asymptomatic infection can result. Persons who are immunocompromised can develop CNS infection.
- Tap water when traveling abroad
- Undercooked eggs, egg salad, or egg-containing salad dressings
- Shellfish, including mussels, oysters, or scallops
- Wild mushrooms
- Ciguatera - Grouper, red snapper, barracuda, or amberjack
- Scombroid - Tuna, bluefin tuna, skipjack, mackerel, marlin, mahi mahi, or puffer fish
- Raw fish prepared at home (sashimi or sushi, especially Alaskan salmon, rockfish)
- Chinese food
- Meat (specify if undercooked or wild game)
- Unpasteurized milk, cheese, eggnog, ice cream, or juices
- Cream pastries or cookie and cake batters
- Home-canned goods
- Food in corroded metal containers
- Fresh produce, including fruit
- Hot dogs, deli meats, or chitterlings (ie, pork innards)
- Soft cheeses or cheese sauces
- Rewarmed rice
- Pet contact
- Foreign travel, especially coastal
- Gulf coast of the United States
- Group picnic or family reunion
- Nausea and vomiting
- Bloody diarrhea
- Profuse watery diarrhea with consequent risk of dehydration
- Severe abdominal pain and cramps
- Autonomic symptoms such as flushing, hypotension, and anaphylaxis
- Headache, dizziness, respiratory failure, and urticaria
- Appendicitislike presentation
- Neck stiffness and meningeal signs
10-08-2007, 01:49 PM #7
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