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  1. #1

    History of Super and Turbo Charging

    Well I decided to post this after reading the RXP Speeds thread where we were discussing RPM and speeds at higher altitudes.

    So here is some quick history I dug up. Hope this is interesting.

    It came soon after the engine

    Forced induction was devised within a few years of the invention of the internal combustion engine, and actually predates the advent of automobiles. Gottlieb Daimler received a German patent for supercharging in 1885, specifying an ext ernal fan, pump, or compressor to push the increased air into the engine.
    In 1908 Lee Chadwick in Pottstown, Pennsylvania built a supercharged Vanderbilt Cup racer, which ran at 100 mph, using a fan driven by a leather belt to spin at five times crankshaft speed. Louis Renault had patented this centrifugal s upercharger concept in France in 1902.
    Another Frenchman, Auguste Rateau, in 1916 tested turbocharging an aircraft, and in 1918 General Electric produced a gain in horsepower with a turbocharged Liberty aircraft engine on the top of Pike's Peak - delivering 356 hp at high a ltitude compared with the engine's stock output at sea level of 346 hp, which formerly would drop to 222 hp at this altitude.
    The pump was already there

    The principles of positive displacement had long before been turned into working pumps by the Roots brothers, beginning in 1859 to develop a better water wheel, and discovering instead a very effective air mover. They formed the Roots Blower Company, but the name is used generically to describe the positive displacement type of blower. The blower has since been used for deep mine ventilation, pneumatic carrying systems, and countless industrial applications including refrigeration and air conditioning.
    During the early twenties Mercedes innovatively developed a Roots type blower instead of the earlier centrifugal compressors. Over the next two decades interest was intense in both turbocharging and supercharging, in America and Europ e, and across several industries. By World War II almost all military aircraft intended for high altitudes were supercharged.
    Twin screw invented

    Also in this period, in 1936 the twin screw air compressor was invented by Alf Lysholm, Chief Engineer of Svenska Rotor Maskiner AB (SRM), which obtained the patent it still holds. Existing technology did not permit the use of this com pressor in supercharging until much later however.
    After the war in America, interest in charging languished, and the desire for automotive power was satisfied by bigger engines with newer engineering, although the europeans maintained their interest.
    In the sixties, with the proliferation of muscle cars, interest in charging resurged, and from that time on, particularly as emissions requirements have intensified and the demand has evolved for fuel efficiency, driveability, and smal ler, more efficient engines, forced induction has developed increased importance, along with technological advances in bearings and lubrication, fuel injection and electronic engine controls.
    The twin screw arrives in America

    Finally, in 1988, Art Whipple of Whipple Industries brought the twin screw compressor to America from Sweden and developed it for supercharging. The astounding results are covered more fully in our Whipple section.
    NOTE: Mr. Norm Drazy writes to correct us:
    Gentlemen: The year 1988 is correct, but it was I, and not Art Whipple, who adapted screw compressor technology to the drag racing application. My PSI supercharger prototype won the alcohol dragster class at the U.S. Nationals. Gary Southern drove Dale Smart's car to a win that was as decisive as a machine gun would have been at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 A.D. Incidentally, I called Art Whipple right after we won, as he was interested in applying our drag racing technology to the street application. Please verify this with Art, but a correction would be appreciated.
    Norm Drazy, President, PSI superchargers
    We're glad to have this amplification of the situation, thanks Norm!
    SRM as mentioned has continued throughout to hold the patent on the twin screw design, and licenses its use all over the world to many different manufacturers for a variety of purposes, including gas processing and refrigeration.
    [A list of licensees globally may be found at the SRM website here]
    But since the 1960s the twin screw's primary application has been to compress air, it is recognized as a superior design for this purpose, and founded on the same positive displacement principles that made the Roots blower such a good air mover.
    It is not yet clear how much of the market or future supercharging development the twin screw technology will dominate. We can say that here in 2003, supercharging as a whole is a vibrant and growing industry.


  2. #2
    This was the section I found interesting and had the most relevance to the other thread I mentioned.

    Another Frenchman, Auguste Rateau, in 1916 tested turbocharging an aircraft, and in 1918 General Electric produced a gain in horsepower with a turbocharged Liberty aircraft engine on the top of Pike's Peak - delivering 356 hp at high a ltitude compared with the engine's stock output at sea level of 346 hp, which formerly would drop to 222 hp at this altitude.

  3. #3
    I forgot to mention the other links I found on Super and Turbo Charging in case anyone wants to do further reading.

    They're in the red right hand column of this page.

    http://www.coloradocobras.com/whippl...induction.html

  4. #4

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    Rxp Kid

    You beat me to the punch. I responded to your post in "Performance Section." Have you ever heard a P51 Mustangs Supercharger whine at full throttle? It is absolulely music by Mozart.

  5. #5
    That was a beautiful plane.

  6. #6
    natris 785p's Avatar
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    good info in this book
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  7. #7

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    Question

    Any supercharger designs better then others? Modern ones that is.

  8. #8
    Vern's Avatar
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    Screw compressors are very good, instant boost, good adabiatic efficiency (don't heat the air much), significantly better than roots blowers. Kenne Bell is one of the bigger screw compressor marketers. Screw compressors are literally compressors - they squeeze or compress the air. Roots blowers are blowers, just force more air in, but don't actually compress it within the supercharger itself. IMO screw compressors are the best design.

    Centrifugals are good too, but boost goes up with rpm, whole different boost curve than roots/screw compressors.

    Nate, do you have the source for that book? I think I have his book on turbos, but I don't have the one you show and it would be good reading.

  9. #9
    Quote Originally Posted by smc
    Any supercharger designs better then others? Modern ones that is.
    http://www.coloradocobras.com/whippl...son-chart.html

    go there and you will see different types of superchargers compared to each other.

  10. #10

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    Eaton

    I have an Eaton 20 psi on a 19 foot U-19 Unlimited Racing boat with a Clevland HO 351- The Eatons are a screw Kompressor I believe, it the same brand put into the Ford Lightning and the GT40- It's a daily runner with little 2 no maitenence.

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